All posts by Joshua

“Pastoral Care” by St. Gregory the Great

In 590 C.E. St. Gregory the Great was elected as the bishop of Rome after the death of Pope Pelagius II.[1] Though he initially tried to avoid the position, he eventually agreed to serve the church and the people of Rome in that role. A year later, Gregory released his book Pastoral Care as “an apology for [his] wish to escape the burdensome office of a bishop.”[2] Within its pages, Gregory outlines the difficulties and challenges one must face in the office of a pastor along with some character guidelines for new recruits. As it happens, the book would become the “standard handbook of pastoral care” [3] for the next thousand years with priests and pastors around the world diving deep into its pages.

            The text itself is divided into four parts with each part building upon its predecessor.[4] The first part is focused on difficulties of pastoral ministry and the character traits required of the office. The second part “sets forth the inner and outer life of the good pastor.”[5] The next selection is the longest part of the book were Gregory outlines how to deal with “nearly forty different classes of people.”[6] The final part is a brief chapter reminding pastors to take care of themselves and refrain from pride as they are but humans serving others through the grace of God.

I first read St. Gregory the Great’s Pastoral Care about a decade ago when I timidly stepped into the role of an associate pastor at a small rural church. Though I enjoyed parts of the book, I found Gregory’s advice to be heavy handed rather than servant focused. This time around, however, I had an entirely different impression of the book, finding it beneficial and worth study. Part of this shift in thinking comes from reading Thomas Oden’s Care of Souls in the Classic Tradition in which he outlines the grace and love within Gregory’s tome.[7] The second part of my shift comes from personally experiencing the difficulties and challenges of pastoring. Having had to walk through some tough pastoral situations over the years, I have come to appreciate Gregory’s advice and encouragement. There is a reason this book has become a staple of pastoral care for the past fourteen hundred years.


[1] Gregory the Great, Pastoral Care, trans. Henry Davis, S.J. (New York City: Newman Press, 1978), 3.

[2] Gregory the Great, Pastoral Care, 4.

[3] Thomas C. Oden, Care of Souls in the Classic Tradition (Minneapolis, Minnesota: Fortress Press, 1984),https://www.religion-online.org/book-chapter/chapter-2-why-gregory/

[4] Gregory the Great, Pastoral Care, 20.

[5] Gregory the Great, Pastoral Care, 4.

[6] Gregory the Great, Pastoral Care, 8.

[7] Thomas C. Oden, Care of Souls in the Classic Tradition,https://www.religion-online.org/book-chapter/chapter-2-why-gregory/

“Care of Souls in the Classic Tradition” by Thomas C. Oden

After years of teaching pastors and Christian leaders about the merits of modern psychotherapy, Thomas Oden became “painfully aware of the so-called outcome studies reporting the dubious effectiveness of average psychotherapy.”[1] This awareness lead Oden on a circuitous journey that ultimately concluded with him turning towards the psychological insights held within the pastoral tradition “expressed by the ecumenical consensus of Christianity’s first millennium of experience in caring for souls.”[2] The book under question is the result of this journey with Oden actively promoting the pastoral soul care teachings of the early church.

            The first chapter of the book is devoted to unpacking Oden’s personal research showing the shift in the early 1900’s away from classic tradition of soul care to the teachings of modern psychologists and psychotherapists.[3] The result of this shift is that, in Oden’s option, there is no longer any “distinction between Christian pastoral care and popular psychological faddism.”[4] The problem with this shift is not just a theological issue, but a practical one as the modern psychotherapy cure rate is about the same as what would happen if nothing was done.[5] The answer to this crisis isn’t to forgo modern research, but to develop an approach to pastoral care that blends both the modern and ancient insights into the human soul.[6]

            After this stage-setting chapter, Oden shifts gears to exploring the life and message of the most influential writer on pastoral care in the history of Christianity.[7] The person in question is none other than St. Gregory the Great (540-? C.E.), whose Pastoral Care became the “standard handbook of pastoral care” [8] for over a millennium. To that end, chapter two of Oden’s book is devoted to St. Gregory’s background, pastoral work, theology, and other influences. Chapters three and four dive deeper into the content of St. Gregory’s book with Oden highlighting the overlap between modern clinical psychotherapy and the soul care promoted by St. Gregory.

            On a personal level I thoroughly enjoyed Thomas Oden’s book and his promotion of the classical tradition of pastoral soul care. While I firmly believe that psychotherapy can be helpful, I also firmly believe that the role of a pastor is vastly different from that of a professional psychologist. In this I have been influenced by Eugene Peterson who reminded pastors that their job was to call people to worship God and not to be counselors.[9] Accordingly, I found Oden’s comments about recovering the classic role of a pastor very lifegiving and freeing. In this, Oden has fulfilled his goal of helping ministers like myself find freedom from modernity while grasping the “emerging vision of a postmodern classical Christianity.” [10]


[1] Thomas C. Oden, Care of Souls in the Classic Tradition (Minneapolis, Minnesota: Fortress Press, 1984), https://www.religion-online.org/book-chapter/introduction-30/.

[2] Thomas C. Oden, Care of Souls in the Classic Tradition, https://www.religion-online.org/book-chapter/introduction-30/.

[3] Thomas C. Oden, Care of Souls in the Classic Tradition, https://www.religion-online.org/book-chapter/chapter-1-recovering-lost-identity/.

[4] Thomas C. Oden, Care of Souls in the Classic Tradition, https://www.religion-online.org/book-chapter/chapter-1-recovering-lost-identity/.

[5] Thomas C. Oden, Care of Souls in the Classic Tradition, https://www.religion-online.org/book-chapter/chapter-1-recovering-lost-identity/.

[6] Thomas C. Oden, Care of Souls in the Classic Tradition, https://www.religion-online.org/book-chapter/chapter-1-recovering-lost-identity/.

[7] Thomas C. Oden, Care of Souls in the Classic Tradition, https://www.religion-online.org/book-chapter/chapter-2-why-gregory/

[8] Thomas C. Oden, Care of Souls in the Classic Tradition, https://www.religion-online.org/book-chapter/chapter-2-why-gregory/

[9] Eugene H. Peterson, The Pastor: A Memoir (New York City: HarperOne, 2011), 136-142.

[10] Thomas C. Oden, Care of Souls in the Classic Tradition, https://www.religion-online.org/book-chapter/introduction-30/.

History, Myths, and Sacred Formulas of the Cherokees

James Mooney (from Wikipedia.org)

In reading various books on the history of the Cherokee people I kept hearing one name mentioned repeatedly: James Mooney. So, I bought his book. =)

Mooney was a first-generation Irish American who grew up on the stories of the old country. As a teenage in the mid-1800’s he started to memorize the names of all the Native American tribes in the North America. This led to a job with the newly formed Bureau of American Ethnology. From that point one Mooney would dedicate his life to recording the stories of the Cherokees and other Native American tribes across the country.

His first book, The Sacred Formulas of the Cherokee, was published in 1891. Nine years later in 1900 his masterpiece Myths of the Cherokee was released. The first half of this book is devoted to telling the history of the Cherokees from their first contact with European explorers in the 1500’s to the end of the nineteenth century.

In order to gain the information necessary for these books, Mooney spent years living among the Cherokees. Most of the time he was in North Carolina and Georgia among the Eastern Band of Cherokees, which were those people who remained in the ancestral land after the Trail of Tears (1838-1839). However, he did make a few visits to Cherokee Nation in Oklahoma (then Indian Territory) to collaborate the stories he was hearing in the east.

On a personal level, it was awesome to hear the stories my ancestors would have told each other. Stories about creation, the animals, and the land. In researching my family, I discovered that my great-great-great grandfather Zachariah T. Langley would have been in and around the area Mooney was in the 1880s. Both he and his son, John W.D. Langley, was listed on the Eastern Band’s rolls during this time before moving to Oklahoma in 1890. Most of Zachary’s family, including his mother, would stay in the east among the Eastern Band.

The tribe was introduced to Christian in the early 1800’s. Recognizing the shifting cultural tide, the tribal leaders invited the Moravian Church to start a school within the nation. This opened the door to other groups, most of which were helpful to the Cherokee Nation as a whole. As in, several Christian pastors fought for the tribe against the US Government during the 1830s when the government was forcing them to move west. Though it would be remiss of me if I didn’t note that there were other Christian leaders who were not so kind to the Cherokees. History, like today, is a mixed bag of good and evil.

John W.D. Langley and family

As a side note, I think it is really cool that the Moravian were the first group to engage the Cherokee people. My own personal faith journey was impacted by the history and writings of the Moravian as longtime readers of this site will no doubt know. Though I have yet to personal meet anyone who journeys within that stream of the faith, they have left an impact upon my soul.

In the interest of time I will end this review. It is enough to say that I am incredible thankful for James Mooney’s foresight to record the stories of my people. I am also grateful to the elders of the tribe who told the stories to him. It is a blessing to be able to read these stories over a hundred years later.

Grace and peace.

“Mysteries of the Middle Ages” by Thomas Cahill

Thomas Cahill’s book Mysteries of the Middle Ages: The Rise of Feminism, Science, and Art from the Cults of Catholic Europe is the fifth volume of his acclaimed Hinges of History series. The goal of this series is to “retell the story of the Western world as the story of the great gift-givers, those who entrusted to our keeping one or another of the singular treasures that make up the patrimony of the West.”[1] Accordingly this book sought not so much to document historical events as to introduce the reader to the complex world of the Middle Ages and tell the story of how the “combined sources of Judeo-Christian and Greco-Roman cultures”[2] shaped our modern culture.

            Rather than starting at the beginning of the Middle Ages, Cahill begins with a Prelude focused on late antique Alexandria, Egypt, before moving into an Introduction that bridged the gap between the antique and medieval periods. While this beginning seems odd and very circular, it helps the reader understand “by contrast: how different are the seeds from the soil that nourished them, how splendid will be the flowers compared with the seeds.”[3]

            Chapter one begins sixty-five pages into the volume with a focus on exploring the medieval fascination with female virginity. Using the life of St. Hildegard (1098-1179 C.E.) as an example, Cahill unpacks the “unassailable assumption…[that] the sacrificial virginity of exceptional religious figures…made them more Christ-like than the rest of us.”[4] Interestingly enough, Cahill follows this chapter with a chapter devoted to love and romantic desire as seen through the life of Eleanor of Aquitaine (1122-1204 C.E.). Though it may sound strange, the fact remains that “the pious worship of the Virgin and the adulterous worship of the lady of the manor”[5] both flourished at the same time along with a general rise in status for all women.

            Following a short intermission about the rise of Islam, Cahill dives into the world of education as seen through two rival universities. Chapter three was focused on the rise of reason and scholastic theology at the University of Paris and its effect on the wider world. Chapter four looked at the “new scientific sensibility”[6] growing at the University of Oxford. Peter Abelard (1079-1142 C.E.) and Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274 C.E.) were the two gift-givers of scholastic theology at Paris while Roger Bacon (1214-1292 C.E.) lead the scientific charge at Oxford.

            In keeping with his tendency to utilize pairs, Cahill’s next two chapters explores the artistic side of the Middle Ages through art and poetry. Giotto di Bondone (1266-1337 C.E.) and his “nearly scientific quest to reproduce more exactingly in art the very things his eyes could see”[7] is the focus of chapter five. The poet of Florence, Dante Alighieri (1265-1321 C.E.), is the gift-giver of chapter six with his desire to “get things straight, the things that really matter.”[8] Though Giotto and Dante used different mediums, they both sought to capture the real world.

            Cahill summarizes the material in the book in chapter seven along with a short selection about the emptiness within the political structure of the medieval period. There was “no Roman emperor, good or bad, to bend to” nor was there a pope “to whom we need pay the slightest heed.”[9] Following this chapter there is a brief Dantesque critique on the state of the modern Roman Catholic Church in which Cahill calls the church to “return to the practices of its apostolic foundations.”[10]

            On a personal level, I found this book very informative and interesting as it helped flesh out the impersonal events (e.g. battles, wars, political power struggles) I previously studied. As an heir to the dual tradition of Judeo-Christian and Greco-Roman cultures, it is always interesting to learn about the values and philosophies that have shaped my worldview and influenced my actions. 


[1] Thomas Cahill, Mysteries of the Middle Ages: The Rise of Feminism, Science, and Art from the Cults of Catholic Europe (New York City: Nan A. Talese, 2006), iv.

[2] Thomas Cahill, Mysteries of the Middle Ages, v.

[3] Thomas Cahill, Mysteries of the Middle Ages, 3.

[4] Thomas Cahill, Mysteries of the Middle Ages, 100.

[5] Thomas Cahill, Mysteries of the Middle Ages, 121.

[6] Thomas Cahill, Mysteries of the Middle Ages, 221.

[7] Thomas Cahill, Mysteries of the Middle Ages, 264.

[8] Thomas Cahill, Mysteries of the Middle Ages, 291.

[9] Thomas Cahill, Mysteries of the Middle Ages, 310.

[10] Thomas Cahill, Mysteries of the Middle Ages, 316.

Bernard of Clairvaux: Selected Works

During the 12th century Bernard of Clairvaux was a major force of monastic reform and political intrigue. Known as ‘Doctor Mellifluous,’ Bernard was very active in the “many political and ecclesiastical disputes”[1] of his time including being a major supporter of the Second Crusade. At his core, however, Bernard was a mystic who longed to spend his time “meditating on the love of God” and the “humanity of Christ.”[2] It is this latter side of Bernard that comes out in the HarperCollins Spiritual Classics book Bernard of Clairvaux: Selected Works which contains multiple sermons and letters by Bernard along with his treatise “On Loving God.”

The volume starts off with a transcript of Bernard’s sermon “On Conversion” delivered in Paris sometime during the year 1140 A.D.[3] Written – and most likely delivered – with a pastoral heart, Bernard tries hard to convince people that following God is a noble and worthy cause worth forsaking worldly fame and success. After walking through various points of arguments for and against the conversion of the heart, Bernard declares at the end of the sermon that no matter the cost “those whose treasure is in heaven have no reason to fear.”[4]

Bernard’s treatise “On Loving God” makes up the second part of the HarperCollins Spiritual Classics book. This treatise was composed between 1125 and 1141 A.D. at the request of Aimeric, “cardinal deacon of the Church in Rome,”[5] who wished to know “why and how God ought to be loved.”[6] Bernard initially answers this question in eight words, “the cause of loving God is God himself”[7], before elaborating on this response in great length. The mystical tendencies of Bernard come to the front during this selection with him declaring that a person can become so “drunk with divine love”[8] that they “become like God”[9] and are freed from the “entanglements of the flesh.”[10]

The third part of the book is filled with the transcript of six sermons of Bernard on The Song of Songs originally delivered to the monks at Clairvaux between 1135 and 1153 A.D.[11] Following these sermons, the HarperCollins Spiritual Classics book ends with three letters from Bernard to various people. The mystical heart of Bernard shines in his sermons while his pastoral heart and love for the monks under this guidance comes to the surface in his letters.

On a personal level I was struck by Bernard’s passion and love for Jesus. No matter the topic, Bernard’s passionate love for the Creator became the foundation on which everything else was based upon. It is no wonder that Bernard’s theology became known as one of love.[12] Sadly, though, Bernard’s rampant support for the Second Crusade stands in contradiction to his theology of love as he actively promoted the killing of innocent people for political gain. Granted it must be noted that Bernard’s promotion of the Crusade was fueled with a desire to support the Roman Catholic Kingdom of Jerusalem rather than the mass extermination of Jews and Muslims as some preaching of the time taught.[13] Regardless of the reason, I feel that his support of the Second Crusade is a blight upon his otherwise excellent career in support of the Bride of Christ. If anything, the life and writings of Bernard of Clairvaux should serve as a warning not to separate the love of Jesus from the love of one’s fellow neighbor for both are needed as noted by the Messiah himself (e.g. Mark 12:30-31, Matthew 22:36-40).


[1] Justo L. González, The Story of Christianity: The Early Church to the Present Day (Peabody, Massachusetts: Prince Press, 2009) 282.

[2] Justo L. González, The Story of Christianity, 282.

[3] Bernard of Clairvaux, Bernard of Clairvaux: Selected Works, ed. Emilie Griffin and trans. G.R. Evans (New York: HarperCollins, 2005), 2.

[4] Bernard of Clairvaux, Bernard of Clairvaux, 46.

[5] Bernard of Clairvaux, Bernard of Clairvaux, 48.

[6] Bernard of Clairvaux, Bernard of Clairvaux, 49.

[7] Bernard of Clairvaux, Bernard of Clairvaux, 49.

[8] Bernard of Clairvaux, Bernard of Clairvaux, 78.

[9] Bernard of Clairvaux, Bernard of Clairvaux, 91.

[10] Bernard of Clairvaux, Bernard of Clairvaux, 91.

[11] Bernard of Clairvaux, Bernard of Clairvaux, 96.

[12] “Bernard of Clairvaux, St. (1090–1153),” Encyclopedia of Philosophy on Encyclopedia.com, accessed January 2, 2019, https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/bernard-clairvaux-st-1090-1153.

[13] Justo L. González, The Story of Christianity, 297.

The Vibe or Spirit of the Land

“You can feel the youthfulness of the land. It’s like a child full of energy and unpredictability.”

Those were my words as we walked through the woods a stone throw from the Sawtooth Wilderness. The two of us had left the trail a while back and were picking our way along a ridge north of Pettit Lake. Our conversation during this hike was wide ranging, but the land was front and center for most of it.

Though it is easy to miss, the land around us has a vibe or spirit that telegraphs its character to those who listen. The Sawtooth Mountains, for example, sends a vibe of youthful energy. It is a young range with unpredictable mood swings – going from burning hot days to freezing cold nights to perhaps a lightening storm or two.

The Ozark mountains where I spend my childhood telegraphs a different vibe. They are an old range full of history and stories. Every nook and hollow within the range has a story to tell. The few times I’ve visited the Appalachian Mountains I’ve felt a similar vibe though I have not had the honor of listening to their voices as much as I would like.

Years ago when I first came to Idaho I worked in the high mountain deserts in the far south-west of the state. Deep canyons cut through the deserts like wrinkles on an aged face. The desert is a shy place, hiding its secrets from visitors. Only those who slow down and watch are given a glimpse into the deep mysteries of the desert.

Cities and town also give off their own vibes. Each one as unique as the people who dwell within their boundaries.

It is easy to miss these signs – to simply go about living on top of the land without thinking about it. The Creator, however, crafted each stone, blade of grass, tree, and dirt particle. As such it beholds us to stop and listen to the spirit of the land in which we reside. They have stories to tell us if only we pause.

“The Imitation of Christ” by Thomas à Kempis

In the late-fourteenth century a young man from the village of Kempen named Thomas Haemerken joined a spiritual renewal movement started a few decades earlier by a Dutch scholar named Geert Groote.[1] The movement was centered around the life of Jesus of Nazareth with adherents devoting “their lives to study and to educating the world.”[2] After years of study, Haemerken, better known as Thomas à Kempis or Thomas of Kempen, would share the Christ-centered values of the movement with the everyone through one of the most famous and widely read devotional books in the world, The Imitation of Christ.[3] 

            Written in four parts, The Imitation of Christ invites the reader to “study the life of Jesus Christ” so that we may “imitate His life and habits.”[4] To that end, the first part seeks to provide the reader with instructions on how to renounce the values of the world (e.g. pride, material possessions, selfishness) in favor of spiritual soul care and formation. “The greatest wisdom,” Thomas writes, “[is] to seek the kingdom of heaven through contempt of the world.”[5] Though this is not an easy message to embrace, it is one worth pursuing as in doing so we “will find peace and will experience less hardship because of God’s grace and the love of virtue.”[6]

            The second part of the book focuses on the interior life of the reader through a look at the “deeper aspects of the spiritual life, in which God illuminates our hearts with His truth.”[7] It was this selection that really caught my attention as Thomas’ words on mediation, grace, humility, and the Cross were simply powerful. It is easy to try to force oneself to follow the way of Jesus instead of dealing with the internal struggles within our souls. We are not, however, to rely upon ourselves in this journey, but rather “it is the grace of Christ…which can and does bring it about.”[8]

            Thomas shifts his writing style in part three of the book from general prose to a conversational dialogue between Jesus and his ‘disciple’ with the text alternating between the voice of Jesus and his disciple. Because of this literary device, Thomas was able to address common questions and hesitations held by his readers in a loving and humble manner. Unfortunately, I found the style distracting and hard to follow. However, others throughout history have found the style helpful as noted in the preface to this volume.[9]

            The fourth part of the book continues with the conversational dialogue previously introduced. The focus on the conversation shifts from personal soul care to the “centrality of the sacrament of Eucharist”[10] which highlights the monastic and medieval culture in which Thomas was writing. Thomas, however, doesn’t forgo his overall focus on one’s personal life. Throughout this selection about the Eucharist he continues to encourage the reader to pursue the virtues of Jesus Christ. Writing in the voice of Christ, Thomas’s encourages readers not only to “prepare devoutly before Communion” but to “carefully keep [themselves] in devotion after receiving the Sacrament.”[11]

            Overall, I thoroughly enjoyed Thomas à Kempis’ Christ-centric devotional book, The Imitation of Christ. His message of spiritual formation based upon the study and imitation of Jesus of Nazareth is one that resonates within my heart. Though it is hard to look deeply inside and allow the Creator to ferret out the negative things within, it is a journey worth pursuing. Besides, as Thomas noted, “when Jesus is near, all is well and nothing seems difficult.”[12]


[1] Thomas à Kempis, The Imitation of Christ (Peabody, Massachusetts: Hendrickson Publishers, Inc., 2008), xii-xiii.

[2] Thomas à Kempis, The Imitation of Christ, xii.

[3] Thomas à Kempis, The Imitation of Christ, xiv.

[4] Thomas à Kempis, The Imitation of Christ, 3.

[5] Thomas à Kempis, The Imitation of Christ, 3.

[6] Thomas à Kempis, The Imitation of Christ, 32.

[7] Thomas à Kempis, The Imitation of Christ, xiv.

[8] Thomas à Kempis, The Imitation of Christ, 50.

[9] Thomas à Kempis, The Imitation of Christ, xiv.

[10] Thomas à Kempis, The Imitation of Christ, xiv.

[11] Thomas à Kempis, The Imitation of Christ, 153.

[12] Thomas à Kempis, The Imitation of Christ, 42.

“Francis of Assisi and His World” by Mark Galli

The book Francis of Assisi and His World is a relatively small book packed with full color pictures of relics, paintings, maps, and buildings from the time of Francis of Assisi. While this format is uncommon among theology/history books, it makes sense considering it was written by the Managing Editor of Christianity Today magazine, Mark Galli. Though different, the format does fit with Galli’s goal of helping the reader “understand the modern medieval Francis” by giving them a “glimpse of life in the Middle Ages.”[1]

            The textual style of the book built upon the graphical format of the book and helped tell the story of Francis. Though Galli consulted a “great deal of scholarship”[2] in researching the book, he chose to keep the text concise with a moving narrative. This choice worked incredibly well as I found myself fully engaged with the material while pictures of Assisi and Francis swirled around my head.

            Content wise, Galli divided the story of Francis into thirteen parts that follow the general time progression of the saint’s life. The first nine chapters dealt mostly with the more historical events of the saint – i.e. his time as a knight, when he disowned his father, the founding of the Franciscan order, etc. Chapters ten through twelve focused more on Francis teachings and life reflections though they still followed the basic timeline of his life, especially the time after he stepped down from leadership and was preparing to die. Galli uses the last chapter not only to give the reader a sense of what happened to the Franciscan order after Francis death, but also to summarize his conclusion on how the modern reader should respond to Francis’ message.[3]

            It is this later theme that was of interest to me for Galli goes to great pains to remind the reader that Francis was focused on calling people towards “simplicity and poverty.”[4] This was the great message of Francis of Assisi along with the call to forsake one’s sinful actions and embrace the way of Jesus of Nazareth.[5] Sadly this message has been divorced from the memory of Francis with his likeness being used to promote environmental stewardship or service to the poor with no mention of Jesus.[6] This, quite frankly, was the Francis I knew prior to reading Galli’s book.

            In reading this book, however, I have come to a new understanding of who Francis of Assisi was. His call towards simplicity is one that I have found myself embracing over the years in an effort to combat the hyper-materialism of modern American culture. I also enjoyed learning about Francis’ message of humility. His choice to submit to church leadership even though he knew they were incorrect in some things is truly remarkable. All too often, we humans allow pride to divide us rather than seeking to retain relationship with each other through humility and grace. Though Francis’ personal example of humility is one that seems out of reach for myself, I have to admit that it is encouraging and enlightening. To that end, I have a new respect for Francis of Assisi and the Franciscan order he founded.


[1] Mark Galli, Francis of Assisi and His World (Downers Grove, Illinois: InterVarsity Press, 2002), 7-8.

[2] Mark Galli, Francis of Assisi and His World, 8.

[3] Mark Galli, Francis of Assisi and His World, 8, 182-183.

[4] Mark Galli, Francis of Assisi and His World, 183.

[5] Mark Galli, Francis of Assisi and His World, 56-57, 138, 179, 183.

[6] Mark Galli, Francis of Assisi and His World, 181.

Francis and Clare: The Complete Works

Saint Francis (1182-1226 C.E.) and Saint Clare (1193-1253 C.E.) are two of the most famous saints in the history of Christian Spirituality having “captured the hearts and imaginations of men and women of all nationalities and creeds through the centuries.”[1] Both saints grew up in the Italian city of Assisi around the same time though it is unclear if they knew each other before 1212 C.E. when Clare pledged herself to Christ in the presence of Francis and the bishop of Assisi.[2] In the years that followed this pledge, Clare and Francis became joined together in the minds of their followers as they lived out the ways of Lady Poverty.

            The volume in question contains all the known writings of both Saint Francis and Saint Clare. The first half of the book is focused on Francis displaying the twenty-eight works firmly established as written by Francis along with five dictated letters/blessings.[3] The most famous of these works is “The Earlier Rule” which help establish and guide the Order of Friars Minor (i.e. the Franciscans).[4] Saint Clare’s writings make up the latter half of the book. Included in this selection are her four letters to Blessed Agnes of Prague as well as “The Rule of Saint Clare” that guided the actions of the Order of Poor Ladies.[5]

            While the writings of both Saint Francis and Saint Clare were interesting from a historical view point, I have to admit that I wasn’t personally impacted by their writings. Their radical dedication to Lady Poverty, while honorable, isn’t something that tugs on my spirit, though I do embrace material simplicity which could be called a sister to Lady Poverty. I did, however, connect, as a lot of people have, with Francis’ view on all of creation praising the Creator King.[6] Lastly, I admit that Francis’ overwhelming support for the leadership of the Roman Catholic Church was a surprise to me. Though he lived during a time when corruption ran deep throughout the hierarchy of the church, Francis taught his followers to respect and obey the priests and leaders of the church.[7] This doesn’t mean that he didn’t call out the sins of the church (for he did!), but rather it shows his deep conviction and love for the Bride of Christ.[8] This, if anything, is a message the modern church needs to hear.


[1] Regis J. Armstrong and Ignatius C. Brady, eds., Francis and Clare: The Complete Works (New York City: Paulist Press, 1982), xv.

[2] Regis J. Armstrong and Ignatius C. Brady, eds., Francis and Clare, 170.

[3] Regis J. Armstrong and Ignatius C. Brady, eds., Francis and Clare, 7.

[4] Regis J. Armstrong and Ignatius C. Brady, eds., Francis and Clare, 107-108.

[5] Regis J. Armstrong and Ignatius C. Brady, eds., Francis and Clare, 170.

[6] Regis J. Armstrong and Ignatius C. Brady, eds., Francis and Clare, 19-20.

[7] Regis J. Armstrong and Ignatius C. Brady, eds., Francis and Clare, 69.

[8] Mark Galli, Francis of Assisi and His World (Downers Grove, Illinois: InterVarsity Press, 2002), 59, 182.